Kosher Is The Whole Of Religious Rules Regulating The Nutrition Of The Observant Jews.
The Hebrew Word “Kasher Or Kosher” Means Conforming To The Law, Permitted; The Main Rules Deriving From The Bible – The Torah.
Here are a few practical rules that have been followed by worldwide Jews for more than 3,000 years:
Here Are A Few Practical Rules That Have Been Followed By Worldwide Jews For More Than 3,000 Years.
The prohibition to mix meat and milky products in the same meal:
for as many as three times does the Torah recommend not to cook “the lamb” into her mother’s milk”. From this rule, the rabbinical tradition prohibited the mixture, the cooking and the profit obtained by cooking together meat and milk.
It is therefore forbidden to cook milk (and its subproducts, for example butter) with the meat of any animal, both quadrupeds (e.g. beef meat) and birds (e.g. chicken’s meat).
This is why observant Jews keep two separate sets of dishes and cutlery, two separate sections in the fridge, and separate washing sponges.
The permitted animals are those ruminants that also have cloven, i.e. split, hooves, like the cow, the calf, the sheep, the goat, etc.
The animals that are NOT permitted are those that have NOT both such marks: for example the rabbit, the pig, the horse, etc.
The Jewish cuisine also discards all the so-called unclean animals (that have a split nail or hoof but do not ruminate), sea animals without scales and without fins (crustaceans and mollusks are not permitted), rapacious birds and reptiles.
Butchery or Shechitah: The rite of slaughtering the permitted animals, the so-called shechitah, must be done by a competent Rabbi, called “Shochet”, who has the expertise to do it, i.e. must know deeply the rules and is licenced by a Jewish community. The slaughtering consists in killing the animal with one single cut at the throat, made with an extremely sharp knife, faultless and without scratches, so that the animal dies instantly and its blood drains out completely.
The internal organs of the animals are then examined to exclude the possibility of defects or traces of diseases that would make them unclean; this is called “bediquat” or inspection. Any exemplary which is not butchered following the rules is automatically unclean and therefore is not permitted.
The prohibition of blood consumption: The blood contains the vitality of an animal and it is therefore strictly prohibited to eat any form of blood from animals or birds; it is forbidden also if found in eggs.
The blood of the permitted fish is not included: because the blood of fish is not considered blood: this is a rule dictated by our sages (see Fish, below).
In order to eat the meat after slaughtering all the remaining blood must be eliminated, washed away with salted water for at least twenty minutes and no more than one hour.
On the other side, the liver, the lungs and the heart must be treated directly on fire; this is the only way to kasherize them.
Prohibition to eat some particular parts of fat: in the past, such parts were put aside for the service, i.e. for sacrifices in the Sanctuary of Jerusalem.
Prohibition to eat the sciatic nerve: this is a way to remember the Biblical episode in which Jacob was made lame by the fight with the angel. After that, Jacob was renamed “Israel”, i.e. “he who fights against G-“.
Prohibition to eat parts taken from living animals.
Prohibition to eat a permitted animal, ritually slaughtered, if it shows defects or diseases.
The permitted fish consists of all fishes having scales and fins. As it is impossible to list them all, here are the most common ones: trout, hake, cod, sole, sea bass, sea bream, sardines, pilchards, sardinellas, anchovy, tuna fish, mackerel, mullet, goatfish, dentex, grouper, carps, herring, pike, perch, Steen bras, grey mullet, plaice, John Dory, salmon, striped sea bream, brill (but not turbot), flounder.
It is to note that the fish denomination appearing at the fishmonger’s could be incorrect. Do not purchase peeled fish, but make sure that there are scales (scales come with fins, but not vice versa). Moreover, always ask the fishmonger to wash the knife and the workbench before working for you.
Prodotti Industriali Con Certificazione Kosher E Prodotti Industriali Permessi
Attualmente, con i mutati ritmi giornalieri che costringono spesso a pasti fuori casa, seguire le complesse procedure di preparazione del cibo secondo le leggi sarebbe piuttosto complicato, pertanto è nata la necessita di prodotti già pronti all’uso certificati Kosher.
Tale certificazione è applicabile ad una gran varietà di prodotti, dagli ingredienti da cucina come l’olio d’oliva ad alimenti confezionati, fino ai prodotti dietetici. Essa viene rilasciata da apposite associazioni Rabbiniche, che si avvalgono anche della collaborazione di esperti, ed è indicata sul prodotto da un apposito simbolo o dicitura che identifica il Rabbino certificatore.
Perché un prodotto sia certificato Kosher, tuttavia, è necessario che esso soddisfi rigorosissimi standard di qualità e che tutte le procedure di produzione e confezionamento nonché ogni singolo ingrediente utilizzato nella sua preparazione siano conformi alle restrittive leggi del Kasheruth.
Il rispetto di queste severe regole e verificato periodicamente, da esperti, sul logo di produzione e la certificazione (che ha una scadenza e va periodicamente ripetuta) può essere revocata in qualsiasi momento.
L’estrema rigidità di queste norme costituiscono una tutela per il consumatore indipendentemente dalla sua religione e, nel tempo, hanno reso la certificazione Kosher un marchio di qualità riconosciuto in tutto il mondo. In alcuni paesi come l’America, infatti, i maggiori consumatori di prodotti Kosher non sono Ebrei, ma persone di qualsiasi religione che ricercano in tale marchio una garanzia di qualità, genuinità e purezza.
When Is A Wine Called Kosher?
The prohibition to drink wine or cook with wine vinegar if not supervised by a Rabbi. First of all, in the Jewish religion, the wine has a role in the sanctification of the Shabbat and the Festivities rotating around the Jewish life; its production has some rather particular features.
As a general rule: for the above-mentioned reasons, every manual activity and any transfer of the must/wine must be performed by observant Jews who will connect the necessary tubes and operate pumps, valves and joints according to the guidelines of the cellar’s supervisor. Any action performed by anyone else would jeopardize the entire production tank; in order to avoid alien handling it is therefore necessary to seal the tank with two marks, above and below, with lead and signature.
The production phases:
Cleaning the plants: all the metal or fiberglass parts must be first washed with water, then soda, then again and water; the rubber connections must be new.
Squeezing: This step must be manned by Jewish staff, who must overturn the truck and convey the grapes into a collector, action the crusher and the stalk separator and the pumps directing the must into the fermenter.
The berries: Peel and seeds are packed, sealed and carried to the distillery after boiling in the plant. The output of this production phase is considered as “mevushal – heated wine”, therefore, from this moment on, it can be manipulated by any operator in the cellar, by the staff of the kosher supervisor.
Each and every transfer must be attended by a rabbinical authority. Cooling down can be followed by a wine standstill phase.
It is permitted to add:
Sulfur dioxide SO2
Sugar, if identified at the source, in the form of concentrated must, only if certified, which is difficult to find in Italy; may be available upon request from France or Israel.
Addition of saccaromycetes source-identified by the French rabbinate, of Kl Lavine type or similar products, with a kosher certification
Boiling or cooking
This is a necessary phase because it transforms the quality of the product for professional operators, who can manipulate the product after wards.
Recently the wine production has connected the pasteurizer to a cooler: the wine is kept at 86°C for 4-5 seconds, and then it is cooled down to -4°C. Thanks to such a process, the organoleptic qualities of the product are guaranteed and flavor and perfume are not lost.
In order to obtain a kosher-le-Pesach product, it is necessary to ensure that the cellulose filters do not contain starch or byproducts of other cereals. If certified, most filters on the market comply with such requirements.
After preparing and cleaning the system it is possible to bottle the wine into new, clean bottles following the standard procedure. Jewish rules require three different marks to recognize the product’s character:
- The label
- a back label or a thermic capsule
- a cork with a recognition mark or the mark of the Rabbinate
Moreover, the label must include the name of the Rabbi who made the supervision and issued the certificate. Such label can also be attached onto the packaging boxes. The Rabbinical authority will issue the number of labels or corks necessary for the operation every single time.
The annual production will be accompanied by a kosher certificate issued by a relevant Agency or by an expert Rabbi.